Ingredients: Endive (Belgian)
A leafy vegetable. The most common species is white and yellow in color; it is slightly bitter but delicate in flavor.
Jan Lammers, a Belgian chicory farmer, is credited with discovering the two-step process for cultivating endive in 1830 when he let his chicory dry. After a few months, he noticed that white leaves had sprouted, which became known as Belgian endive.
This type of endive spread throughout Belgium, where individuals grew it in their own homes. It wasn’t until the 1930s, when a French farmer figured out how to grow them on a commercial scale, that they became available more widely.
Belgian endives are grown in the dark, without sunlight. Cultivators in France heat the soil to help endives grow in cold seasons.
“Endive” from Wisconsin Department of Public instruction https://dpi.wi.gov/sites/default/files/imce/school-nutrition/pdf/fact-sheet-endive.pdf
“Endives: Raised in the Shadows” by Susan Herrmann Loomis (2011) https://www.francetoday.com/food-drink/recipes/raised_in_the_shadows
New Oxford Book of Food Plants by John Vaughan et al. (2009)